CPR and AED in Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation and Automated External Defibrillation in a Sudden Cardiac Arrest


CPR and AED in SCA

What is a Sudden Cardiac Arrest?

In the UK, there are over 30,000 out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) yearly where emergency medical services attempt to resuscitate the victim.

The survival rate is low – just 1 in 10 people in the UK survive an OHCA.

A Cardiac Arrest is when the heart is not working correctly and, therefore, not providing oxygenated blood to the brain and other vital organs of the body. The most common type of CA is ventricular fibrillation, where the heart muscles are not working in a coordinated way and become uncoordinated.

Effective CPR more than doubles the chance of someone surviving a cardiac arrest.

In England in 2019, ambulance services responded to over 80,000 cardiac arrest calls, of which 31,146 subsequently received treatment.

Return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) occurred in 30.7% of patients who received resuscitation by ambulance staff. Overall survival to discharge from the hospital was 9.6%.

Bystander CPR defibrillation before the ambulance service arrives, cardiac arrest survival rates can be over 50%.

72% of cardiac arrests occur in the home—15% at work.

98% of cardiac arrests occur in adults.

9% survive hospital discharge.

The average ambulance response time for cardiac arrests is 6.9 minutes (Published May 2021).

22-25% have an initial shockable rhythm.


Women are less likely to receive bystander CPR than men (68% and 73%).

Women are also less likely to survive from admission to discharge (37% and 55%).


Men are more likely to have a heart attack than women (124,000 and 70,000 per year) (2018).


Women often delay seeking medical help for a heart attack.

Women are 50% more likely to receive an initial misdiagnosis.

Risk factors for heart disease are often more deadly for women.


The most common sign or symptom of a heart attack, for men and women, is chest pain (93%), followed by pain down the arm (48% men, 49% women).

Pain in the jaw and back and nausea is more common in women (33%, 19% for men).

Heartburn and back pain is more common in men (41%, 21% for women).